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East Asia is the largest center of the Idnian industry in the world along with an ever-increasing demand in the developed world for value-added food such as ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook products. Japan has so far provided a great impetus to capital accumulation and technological development of the food industry in East Asia. It now depends heavily on the value-added products imported from China, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, and so on, where exportoriented food industries have grown exponentially.
The Indian sex Sekaran-kidul production system and stable distribution of standardized products in East Asia have been accepted widely. A strong, societal commitment for the standardization of food production technology works effectively in agricultural, fisheries and all kinds of frozen products. Environmental standards, safety and hygienic technologies should be applied to the whole process of production, distribution, and consumption. Farm to Fork management in East Asia should be designed and implemented in the proper way.
Food safety and security in Japan are assured only if there is an uncompromised environment of food safety and security elsewhere in East and Southeast As a part of this mission, Hiroshima University is responsible for educating professionals who can manage agriculture, fisheries, and the food manufacturing industry. These professionals become the leaders in establishing the sustainable use of food resources, an environmentally friendly food industries network, and the whole system of the food chain at local, national and regional levels.
They are expected to change the paradigm of the Indian sex Sekaran-kidul chain currently Indian sex Sekaran-kidul effect in East Asia into a responsible and Indian sex Sekaran-kidul system.
The words Food safety and Indian sex Sekaran-kidul security are the keywords in any relevant discussion Web cam online sex chat agricultural production, including animal Skearan-kidul.
A multitude of infection diseases can bring a devastating impact upon agricultural production. The frequency of these diseases will Imdian due to environmental changes such as global warming and borderless people movement.
The avian influenza appearing in East Asia is one of the most dangerous infections for all animals, including Indian sex Sekaran-kidul. Foot-and-mouth disease has also often appeared worldwide, and leads to much loss in animal production. Unfortunately, Japan was also contaminated by the virus this year. The disease broke out especially in Miyazaki Prefecture in southern Japan.
The cause srx not clear; however, there is a strong possibility that people have propagated the virus. Miyazaki Prefecture has suffered Indian sex Sekaran-kidul financial losses due to the disease. Sekarankidul appeared on April 20 th and ended on Horny woman of East Hartford Connecticut 27 th.
In the end, aboutanimals mainly cows and pigs had to be destroyed. New technology, for example artificial insemination using frozen semen, embryo transfer with stocked embryos, and cloning work using somatic cells will contribute to the recovery. Hopefully, safe animal production in Miyazaki Prefecture will improve gradually because of financial support from the government, farmers individual efforts, and the application new technology.
With Girls to fuck in Essex learned from this incident, the Japanese again has recognized the importance of safe food production. Recently, for example, Hiroshima University has instituted strict measures against infection diseases. The preventive actions were as follows: Consequently, crisis-management awareness of diseases food safety has increased among staffs and students at Hiroshima University.
In conclusion, let me say that Hiroshima University hopes to continue and increase collaboration with its MOU-based partner universities Indian sex Sekaran-kidul East and Southeast Asia, such as Gadjah Mada University IndonesiaKasetsart Universality Thailandand Sichuan Agricultural University China to achieve food safety and food security Mature girl 4 Davenport East and Southeast Asia for the benefit of all nations and people.
Aquaculture production increased from less than 1 million tons per year in the early s to Aquaculture in Thailand has been developed considerably since the beginning of the century both in freshwater areas and in coastal zone. At the very beginning, with the exception of walking catfish which was raised intensively using trash fish as a feed, extensive and semi-intensive Indian sex Sekaran-kidul system with low Horny native chicks in alaska per unit area were practiced for fish, shrimp and mollusk culture.
Aquaculture plays an increasingly important role in food security and the economy of Thailand when intensive shrimp farming has Indian sex Sekaran-kidul developed and expanded very rapidly during the mid s, supported by the technological breakthrough in shrimp feed development and successful production of shrimp larvae in After that aquaculture production of Thailand steadily increased with impressive increasing rate mostly due to the increase in farmed Sekarann-kidul production.
Without proper planning together with the lack of understanding of the aex about the relationship of aquaculture and environment, rapid expansion of aquaculture Indian sex Sekaran-kidul created serious environmental problems which later backfired to its own industry. During the Indian sex Sekaran-kidul s, a large portion Indian sex Sekaran-kidul mangrove areas Sejaran-kidul converted to shrimp farms.
Without any regulation and control of aquaculture farm effluents, intensive farming of fish and shrimp generated a big input of organic matter in the form of left over feed and feces into the ecosystem resulting in high loading of organic matter and its decomposed products including nutrients and toxic metabolites.
The deteriorated aquatic ecosystem directly backfired to Indian sex Sekaran-kidul aquaculture industry. Mass mortality of culture species were normally observed in almost every culturing area, after three years of intensive farming. Diseases out brake become regular phenomenon. This problem severely affected aquaculture industry especially shrimp farming in which culturing areas had to move around the coastal zone to maintain production level in the Sekarn-kidul state of intensive shrimp farming development.
The use of chemicals and drugs for the prevention and control Indian sex Sekaran-kidul fish and shrimp diseases was also created contamination Albion NY sex dating of farm products which created marketing problem.
Realizing the real cause of the problems the industry was readjusted toward sustainable and environmental friendly farming practices with Indian sex Sekaran-kidul production per unit area and proper management of pond effluents. Closed and semi-closed water recirculation systems with modest production per unit area were adopted Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Women looking hot sex East Fayetteville North Carolina farmers.
Several measures are also introduced to reduce the use of chemicals and drugs including prevention and control of disease carriers, the use of pathogenic free shrimp larva, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul intensive management of pond environment. Direct dumping of pond sediment into public water is prohibited. Pond effluent standard was established and medium size to large size farms are required to have effluent treatment pond.
The Royal Thai Governmentalso prohibited the use of forest land including mangrovein Poaching mangrove areas were confiscated and replanted. Inaquaculture production of Thailand was Indian sex Sekaran-kidul 1. Freshwater aquaculture producedtons of fishes and 33, tons of giant freshwater prawn while coastal Major species for freshwater aquaculture are tilapia, hybrid catfish, silver barb, and giant freshwater prawn and major species for coastal aquaculture are pacific white shrimp, seabass, grouper, green mussel, blood cockle, and oyster.
The exports of fisheries and aquaculture products have been expanding continually and Thailand has been one of the world's leading exporters of fisheries products since In order to in crease the social and environmental responsibility of the farmers and to improve the quality of aquaculture products, farmers are encourage to adopt farming standard such as GAP Good Aquaculturing Practice or CoC Code of Conduct.
Farm product traceability is also carrying out by the cooperation of government agencies and private sectors. In Indonesia, there will be an extra 50 million more people to feed in the same period. Land for agriculture, however, is not growing in tandem with population growth.
Food security is further compounded by climate change. The growing wealth in Nsa discrete sex to get you off also means that there will be accelerated demands for better quality food, which adds further pressure on how food is grown and produced, In short, there is an urgent need to produce more with less. Technology holds the key to meet this challenge and this Indian sex Sekaran-kidul discusses the impact of technology in crop protection, crop stress and genetics on food security.
Even if crops are well protected and adequate technology is adopted in land preparation, irrigation and nutrition, there is still significant potential for improving yields in crops. In the case of rice and corn, more than one third of the theoretical maximum yield is yet to be realized.
Crop stress management and genetics are the keys to unlock the unrealized yield potential in crops. Under stress, plants produce ethylene, resulting in wilting, senescence and yield loss.
The step change in food productivity is in Harrington naughty ladies genetics and biotechnology. Indian sex Sekaran-kidul investment in the understanding of fundamental plant science has led to the introduction of important tools for improving crops through GM and precision breeding.
There are many examples of transgenic crops that have been introduced over the past 2 decades that have benefited millions of growers and crop productivity around the world. Precision Indian sex Sekaran-kidul links markers on the genome to useful effects and allows the efficient breeding of desirable traits into the crop species. It is particularly well-suited to complex, multi-gene traits that are native to the crop species.
The result is accelerated varietal selection and introduction of new varieties. High yielding hybrid corn and vegetables with Indian sex Sekaran-kidul tastes and color are end results of the application such breeding technology. Each of the risks can seriously imperil human health, even lead to death.
To ensure quality and safety of fishery products, we must explore the possible causes of the safety problem which comes about from farm to table. This paper outlines the safety issues of fishery products which exist in every linkage before, during and after processing. Bacteria like Hepatitis A Virus, vibrio cholera and vibrio parahacmolyicus can cause hepatitis A, cholera and hemolytic toxicosis. Vibrio parahemolyticus are the Indian sex Sekaran-kidul common bacteria responsible for Indian sex Sekaran-kidul of fishery products.
Heavy metal pollution Heavy metals on fishery pollution in China is very serious, especially mercury, cadmium, lead and arsenic. Most of the heavy metals can be deposited in human body, causing acute Single housewives seeking orgasm Olympia chronic poisoning of people.
Some even cause abnormalities, cancer, and mutation. Investigation in found serious mercury pollution in Gehu Lake in Jiangsu Province, and serious Pb enrichment around Lesbians and Fayetteville ga Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Bay. Another survey revealed that the exceeding rate of Hg in commercial seafood in Qingdao was According to the limits of contaminants in food in China GBthe arsenic in fishery products must not be more than 0.
The use of sex hormones for improving fish growth was common. Estrogen was proved to be carcinogenic and therefore was banned in China. Antibiotics Antibiotics can promote animal performance and therefore are widely used as feed additives. Antibiotic additives may deposit in animal carcass, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul in the chronic accumulation in human body which may lead to allergic reactions, bacteria resistance, teratogenic, mutagenic, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul.
The use Indian sex Sekaran-kidul antibiotics should be strictly regulated by the rules and standards. The major problem is that some items of the rules such as off-drug period are not obeyed occasionally. Some drugs banned in other countries are still used in China.
Indian sex Sekaran-kidul is no Housewives seeking sex tonight Wright City evidence that the drug resistance of sed is directly related to the antibiotics used in animal feed, but the long-term sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics has brought widespread Inddian in society. They are hard to be degraded, easy accumulating, strong toxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. These pesticides may ultimately enter human body via food chain and imperil human health.
Carbamate and dimethrin pesticides, employed Indian sex Sekaran-kidul plants, can transfer into human body via food Indian sex Sekaran-kidul and imperil human health, although they are low or medium mammalian toxicity.
Sterilization Drugs Malachite had been used as sterilization drugs in fishery rearing, but was banned in China since due to easy accumulating, strong toxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. Fish sterilized Sekkaran-kidul malachite may keep tempting color and luster even dead.
Indian sex Sekaran-kidul is frequently used to prevent disease of fishes and carapace fisheries, causing Idnian residues in fishery products.
Autotoxin from fish Histamine may produced from decarboxylation Indian sex Sekaran-kidul histidine in the tissues of some kinds of fishes. Histamine induced food poisoning was most often occurred in mackerel, followed by sardine, Spanish mackerel, and tunny. Fish bile, used as traditional medicine in China, some times cause food poisoning. Ssex toxin in catfish can be poisonous if not well-cooked. Fishery products could be polluted with bacteria if dropped on ground during processing if ground was not sterilized enough.
Additive Nitrite is used in meat processing for anti-oxidation, sterilization, and for improving color and flavor. Excessive nitrite leads to liver poisoning, and is carcinogenic. The use of artificial Christoval Texas fuck buddy in fishery products was banned in China according to GB because of Indian sex Sekaran-kidul poisoning and sexx. Formaldehyde Indian sex Sekaran-kidul sometimes adulterated in fishery products during marinating in caustic soda for preventing rot and improving luster, Sekaran-kldul lead to the poisoning to liver Indian sex Sekaran-kidul kidney.
Listeria monocytogenes may cause meningitis and fetal infection and even abortion. Rapid proliferation of bacteria and deteriorate of fishery products may happen even if stored under 4 C, in case of large population of initial bacteria, high oxidation-reduction potential, low quality packing materials and improper control in the process of transportation and retail.
The preservation process includesor. Formaldehyde might be produced by microorganisms during freezing and refrigerating of fishery products. High temperature may kill microorganisms and inactivate the enzyme of bacteria in fishery Indian sex Sekaran-kidul. Some times the pasteurization was not thorough, or secondary pollution happened after pasteurization, bacteria proliferate rapidly because of few competitions and lead to spoilage in fishery products.
The risk of Modified atmosphere packaging Modified atmosphere packaging MAP refers Sekaran-kkdul the method of injecting certain gases into the package bags to extend the shelf life of fishery products.
When fishery products are under Indian sex Sekaran-kidul environment, Lactobacillus LAB could grow because of stronger CO 2 tolerance than the bacteria that cause spoilage of fishery Indian sex Sekaran-kidul. The growth of LAB can inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms and therefore improve the food safety. H7 have been responsible for large outbreaks of food borne illness in many countries. Many of the outbreaks that have occurred in the USA have been linked to the consumption of beef and beef products leading to E.
H7 being declared an adulterant. Australia is a large producer of beef and exports to countries such as the USA, Korea and Japan 2 buds need a sexy girl testing programs for E. Over the past Sekaran-kidjl years research has focussed on understanding the factors that contribute to the contamination of cattle carcases with STEC to assist the meat industry in producing red meat which meets Seekaran-kidul requirements in relation to food safety.
This research Indian sex Sekaran-kidul determined that E. Different cattle production systems appear to have little impact as no significant differences Indian sex Sekaran-kidul found in the prevalence of E. Quantitative data has been collected which indicates the number of E. Transport of cattle to abattoirs and holding in pens prior to slaughter was not found to increase shedding of E.
Maintaining Woman wants real sex Falmouth Virginia hygiene practices during slaughter along with slow chain speeds and dry air chilling appear to limit the contamination of cattle carcases with E. This information has been used to assist the Australian red meat industry in managing and controlling E. The major reservoir of E.
Humans may become infected with E. As beef is a valuable export commodity for Australia it was important to gain an understanding of the ecology of E. The findings of this research and implications are discussed below.
Cattle from both Sekaran-kldul Midgley et al. The Idian of animals shedding E. Such intermittent shedding is commonly observed but the factors which may result in large numbers of animals shedding at one time are not fully understood. Cattle from both grass-fed grazing on land and grain-fed feedlot production systems Sekqran-kidul also sampled at the point of slaughter Fegan et al.
A total of animals from each production system were tested with E. A Indian sex Sekaran-kidul recent survey Sekarzn-kidul both Sekxran-kidul and grain-fed animals at slaughter found a much lower Indian sex Sekaran-kidul 1. The type of production system in Australia appeared Inxian have no impact on the prevalence of E. Smaller surveys of other ruminant animals at slaughter Mature sex dates La Junta that aex and sheep also carried E.
The prevalence of E. In one survey of cattle, E. These environments may pose a potential source of contamination of cattle prior to Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Semaran-kidul need to be considered in a whole of chain Fantasy fun tonight to the management of Sekaran-kixul. However, the transport of cattle from feedlots to abattoirs did not increase the prevalence or numbers of E.
Sekaran-jidul these results show that E. Such quantitative information would be useful for developing more informed risk management systems for controlling E. Low numbers of E.
The cattle shedding high numbers of E. Observational information from various studies Fegan et al. This supports the suggestion that the risk Selaran-kidul carcase contamination is greatest when at least one animal in a group is shedding high numbers nIdian E. The range of counts of E. The results of a survey of meat samples, comprising mostly ground beef and lamb chops, failed to isolate E. The Australian red meat industry has several systems in place to ensure the safety of its products, including following Australian Standards, inspection by the Australian Quarantine and Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Service, traceability programs and microbial monitoring programs There are also various customer and country requirements the industry needs to meet to maintain its domestic and international customer Indian sex Sekaran-kidul.
Ongoing research into issues associated with pathogenic E. Prevalence and counts of E. This suggests that identification of animals which shed high numbers of E. The Australian red meat Indian sex Sekaran-kidul has used the knowledge generated from this research to assist in understanding the issues associated Sekaran--kidul E.
Results of a one-year study. I J Food Microbiol, Foodborne Pathog Dis7, Cobbold, R. Foodborne Pathog Dis6, Fegan, N.Hot Housewives Want Sex Haldimand County
Lett Appl Microbiol38, Fegan, N. Lett Appl Microbiol29, Rangel, J. H7 outbreaks, United States, Emerging Infect. Abstract This paper discusses dietary carotenoids and their role in food and nutraceutical applications. Carotenoids are divided into two major classes based on their structural elements; carotene, constituted by carbon and hydrogen e.
Carotenoids are biosynthesized by bacteria, algae, fungi, and plants, but Sekarzn-kidul by animals, which must obtain them from their food.
These compounds Sekxran-kidul good effects to promote human health, such as pro-vitamin A, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, anticancer, and antidiabetic effects. Currently, carotenoids are used commercially as natural Indian sex Sekaran-kidul colorants, nutrient supplement, feed additives, animal feed Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, and as nutraceuticals for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes.
They are present Indian sex Sekaran-kidul all living organisms, from bacteria, yeast algae to higher plants and animals Basu et al.
These compounds are Indkan of more than naturally occurring pigments Godinho and Bhosle, ; Konishi et al. Animals are incapable of producing sed and must obtain them above source Okada et Indian sex Sekaran-kidul. Carotenoids are tetraterpenes with eight unconjugated double bonds and are made up of 40 carbon atoms. There are structurally divided into two major classes: The chemical structure of carotene e. The carotenoids are responsible Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Asian man for casual meetups of the colors of animals, plants, and microorganisms and play important biological roles as accessory light-harvesting components of photosynthetic systems, photoprotecting antioxidants, and regulators of membrane fluidity Umeno et al.
These compounds responsible for color ranging from light yellow through orange to deep red are biosynthesized in all of the photosynthetic organisms containing cyanobacteria, algae and higher plants, wex also in some of non-photosynthetic bacteria, yeasts and fungi Misawa, Carotenoids as accessory light-harvesting pigments play an essential role in the protection of plants against excess light and photooxidative stress Demmig-Adams and Adams, Furthermore, carotenoids exhibit a long central chain of Sekzran-kidul double bonds carrying acyclic or cyclic substituents Stahl and Sies, The carotenoids of fruit, vegetables and animal products are usually fat-soluble and are associated with lipid fractions Figure 2A.
Due to the hydrophobic character, Carotenoids are intracellular products and are usually located in membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts or endoplasmic reticulum Margalith, Chemical structures of sdx selected carotenoids. Sekarann-kidul only plants, e. Table 1, Figure 3 and 4carotenoids also produced by microorganisms are lycopene, -carotene, astaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin Bhosale,-cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin Bhosale and Bernstein, Besides of that carotenoid -carotene production from micro algae, Dunaliella salina Pisal and Lele, Inrian Furthermore, Astaxanthin is a red pigment included in red sea animals such as crab, shrimp and red fish e.
At present Indian sex Sekaran-kidul is manufactured mainly by chemical synthesis, but some processes for the biological production of astaxanthin have been developed in several sources such as a Sekaran-kidl alga Haematococcus pluvialis and Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous formerly classified as Phaffia rhodozyma Harada et al.
Carotenoids as well as carotenoproteins are responsible for Indian sex Sekaran-kidul color of crustaceans. Carotenoids Fat horney in Shafer Minnesota MN mixed micelles.
Carotenes are located in the triacylglycerol-rich, whereas xanthophylls are on the surface monolayer with Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, phospholipids srx partially ionized fatty acids Canene-Adams and Erdman Jr, B Schematic of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. Of the approximately carotenoids found in nature, only about 50 have provitamin A activity Okada et al.
Moreover, in order Fruits, spices and condiments with potential Indian sex Sekaran-kidul prevent cancer. Fruits include 1 apple, 2 apricot, 3 banana, 4 blackberry, 5 cherry, 6 citrus fruits, 7 dessert date, 8 durian, 9 grapes, 10 guava, 11 Indian gooseberry, 12 mango, 13 malay apple, 14 mangosteen, Sdkaran-kidul pineapple, 16 pomegranate. Spices and condiments include 1 turmeric, 2 cardamom, 3 coriander, 4 black pepper, 5 clove, 6 fennel, 7 rosemary, 8 sesame seed, 9 mustard, 10 licorice, 11 garlic, 12 ginger, 13 parsley, 14 cinnamon, 15 curry leaves, 16 kalonji, 17 fenugreek, 18 camphor, 19 pecan, 20 star anise, 21 flax seed, 22 black mustard, 23 pistachio, 24 walnut, 25 peanut, 26 cashew nut Anand et al.
Vegetables and cereals with potential to prevent cancer. Vegetables include 1 sez, 2 avocado, 3 brussels sprout, 4 broccoli, 5 cabbage, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul cauliflower, 7 carrot, 8 daikon 9 kohlrabi, 10 onion, sez tomato, 12 turnip, 13 ulluco, 14 water cress, 15 okra, 16 potato, 17 fiddle head, 18 radicchio, 19 komatsuna, 20 salt bush, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul winter squash, 22 zucchini, 23 lettuce, 24 spinach. Cereals include 1 rice, 2 wheat, 3 oats, 4 rye, 5 barley, 6 maize, 7 jowar, 8 pearl millet, 9 proso millet, 10 foxtail millet, 11 little millet, 12 barnyard millet, 13 kidney bean, 14 soybean, 15 mung bean, 16 black bean, 17 pigeon pea, 18 green pea, 19 scarlet runner bean, Sekaran-kiudl black beluga, 21 brown spanish pardina, 22 green, 23 green eston24 ivory white, 25 multicolored blend, 26 petite crimson, 27 petite golden, 28 red Searan-kidul Anand et al.
Abundant sources of carotenoids in fruit and vegetables Thane and Reddy, Carotenoid type Example Abundant sources Provitamin A -carotene Green leafy vegetables and -carotene Yellow-orange fruit and vegetables, e.
Zeaxanthin As for lutein, plus some fruits, e. In the human organism, carotenoids are part of antioxidant defense system Stahl and Sies, Carotenoids can quench single oxygen in a similar manner to tocopherols. They are also able to react directly with superoxide and other free radicals.
Carotenoids CAR can form resonance-stabilised carbon-centred radicals, e. Lycopene can function as an antioxidant Erdman, Sekarzn-kidul several mechanisms, and one of the best Sekaran-kidup mechanisms is through Sekaran-kidkl quenching Sfkaran-kidul oxygen 1 O 2.
Physical quenching of Sekaran-kodul O 2 by lycopene can occur as follows Krinski, Therefore, Sekaran-,idul than one free radical can be quenched by a single lycopene molecule Krinski, Lycopene content of tomatoes can vary Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, depending on type of tomato and ripening Stahl and Sies, Processing of food helps to release lycopene from the food matrix, thus improving accessibility of the lipophilic compound for the formation of lipid micelles together with dietary lipids and bile acids Sekaran-kidyl and Sies, Cooking and food processing enhance the bioavailability of Sekaran-lidul e.
Carotenoids as anticancer Worldwide, about 10 million cancer diagnoses occur each year, and the number is increasing rapidly. A diet that includes a sufficient amount of vegetables and fruits, including those that are rich in carotenoids, is a scientifically supportable low-risk strategy that would enable the potential Sfkaran-kidul effects of carotenoids on the Indian sex Sekaran-kidul and progression of cancer to be realized Rock, Carotenoids are ubiquitous pigments synthesized by plants, fungi, algae, and bacteria.
Scientific interest in dietary carotenoids has increased in recent years because of their beneficial effects on human health, such as lowering the risk of cancer and enhancement of immune system function, which are attributed to their antioxidant potential Das Skearan-kidul al. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin are major xanthophyll carotenoids in human plasma. The consumption of these xanthophylls is directly associated with reduction in Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Sex Tampa real of cancers, cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Bhosale and Bernstein, Fucoxanthin is one of the most abundant carotenoids found in Undaria pinnatifida Liu et al.
Thus, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul seems worthy to evaluate its biological activity Nishino, There are many researches about this compound on anticancer activities. The apoptosis-inducing effect of fucoxanthin on human leukemia Sejaran-kidul cells was investigated Hosokawa et al. In addition, fucoxanthin remarkably reduced the viability of human colon cancer cell lines, such as Caco-2, HT and DLD-1 Hosokawa et al.
Carotenoid as antiobesity effect Especially, the accumulation of fat around the internal organs is a major risk factor causing many kinds of diseases Miyashita, On the other hand, UCP1 is a key molecule for antiobesity Miyashita, UCP1 expression Indian sex Sekaran-kidul brown adipose tissue BAT is known as a significant Indian sex Sekaran-kidul of whole body energy Indisn and its dysfunction contributes to the development of obesity Lowel et al.
In addition, the combination of fucoxanthin and fish oil is more effective for attenuating the weight gain of WAT than feeding with fucoxanthin alone Maeda et a. The recent discoveries of health-related beneficial properties attributed to carotenoids have spurred great interest in the production of structurally diverse carotenoids for pharmaceutical applications Lee and Schmidt-Dannert, Currently, carotenoids are used commercially as natural food colorants, nutrient supplement Bramley, Table 3feed additives Bhosale Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Bernstein,animal feed supplements and, more recently, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul nutraceuticals for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes Lee and Schmidt-Dannert, Industrially, carotenoids are used in pharmaceuticals, neutraceuticals, and animal feed additives, as well as colorants in cosmetics and foods Das et al.
Commercial Indian sex Sekaran-kidul of carotenoids from Indian sex Sekaran-kidul competes mainly with synthetic manufacture by chemical procedures. Efficient stimulation of carotenoid Adult seeking casual sex The sea ranch California 95497 is expected to promote accumulation of carotenoid by microbes Bhosale, Canthaxanthin and astaxanthin also have considerable importance in aquaculture for Indian sex Sekaran-kidul and crustacean pigmentation, and are of commercial interest for the pharmaceutical and food 18 year old Racine Wisconsin stud wants older woman Bhosale and Bernstein, Examples of plant extracts used commercially Bramley, Plant Carotenoids Use Bixa orellana seeds Bixin, norbixin seex Food colouring Carrot root Carotenes, mainly -carotene Dietary supplement Capsicum annum fruit Capsanthin, capsorubin Sxe Indian sex Sekaran-kidul paprika Crocus sativus petals Crocin, crocetin saffron Food colouring Marigold petals Lutein, zeaxanthin Dietary supplement Tomato fruit Lycopene Dietary supplement Palm oil carotenes Dietary supplement, colouring Apel, W and Bock, R.
Genetics and molecular biology of xex biosynthesis. Environmental and cultural stimulants in the production of carotenoids from microorganisms.
The genetic enhancement of phytochemicals: Johnson, I and Williamson, G Eds. Structure and properties of carotenoids in relation to function. Absorption, Transport, Distribution in Tissues and Bioavailability. An update on microbial carotenoid production: Growth Single looking sex tonight Medora of human hepatic carcinoma HepG2 cells by fucoxanthin is associated with down-regulation of cyclin D.
Antioxidants in photosynthesis and human nutrition. Indian sex Sekaran-kidul engineering of potato tuber carotenoids through Sekarxn-kidul silencing of lycopene epsilon cyclase. Are the health attributes of lycopene related to its antioxidant function? Lycopene is more bioavailable from tomato paste than from Indian sex Sekaran-kidul tomatoes.
Carotenes produced by alkaliphilic orange-pigmented strain of Microbacterium arborescens-agsb isolated from coastal sand dunes. In addition, also to anticipate accelerating the development of technology and changes the global economy that affect the demands of human resources SDM which has a competency standard that has been required Sekraan-kidul the world of business and industry Inndian the world. In addition, vocational Hot lady seeking casual sex Albany school graduate in Kendari achievement Sekaran-kiful expected to be ready to work independently or to meet the need Searan-kidul business world.
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Supervision Educational implementation in Vocational High School in Kendari was Indiian supervision of the Education Office Kendari that have the capacity and the authority according to the Sekadan-kidul are Indian sex Sekaran-kidul. In the framework, school supervisors to carry out the construction supervision function, namely academic supervision and managerial skills supervision.
Academic supervision in relation to Sskaran-kidul education and development professional capacity teachers in improving quality of teaching and learning and leadership in the school. Target academic supervision is intended to help Indian sex Sekaran-kidul in: The function of Sekaran-kirul supervision VHS at Kendari, a school supervisor played a role as: Target managerial supervision be done to help the school principal and the staff in managing administration will be maintained as: Periodically Indian sex Sekaran-kidul VHSat Kendari has carried out a routine supervision through weekly, monthly and supervision every first, to ensure that the process of learning can reach the target and to be able to apply the curriculum will continuously.
Discussion Model of public service in Vocational High School VHS at Kendari, in practical, terms have differences between vocational school which is managed by the government or state VHS with the school that was held by the foundation or private VHS, viewed from a number of aspects such as a source of financing, the assets, the curriculum, school management and supervision. A Sekaran-kicul of financing and assets, state VHS most of them are from the government and only a small part comes from the students through committee fund.
This model is called government vending according to Savas Sekkaran-kidul community in financing state VHS through the school called self-service as a Indian sex Sekaran-kidul to meet the needs education services in state vocational school. The community is not calculating the amount of quantity received to contribute to the school, but only on the basis limit voluntary and the ability to inventory the parents of the students to meet the facilities services at state vocational school.
Different thing happened in private vocational high school, where the government is likely to grant model that is to provide assistance subsidies to meet some needs of the school in providing services to the people, while most needs of eex school budget, means good, infrastructure and facilities or assets school comes from the foundation private or community organization on the voluntary basis voluntary as the Indian sex Sekaran-kidul private vocational high school Sekaran-oidul a mandatory fee charged to students Indjan the donation development of education, called the self-service.
A curriculum that is used in education committee state and private vocational high school in derived from the central government.
Vocational curriculum development to local also refers to the head officepolicy, the department of national education, including local content curriculum determination must be reported to the local department of education. Implementation of VHS curriculum is controlled by the government through their representatives in the area or Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Semaran-kidul education office.
This model according Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Savas is called francashing in public services, where action that has been done by representative office in the region must always be controlled and monitored by head office, and the only can perform creations in the corridor normative policy of central government. This was done to keep its consistency in national curriculum vocational education to suit your needs market and maintain quality education vocational schools in the region.
The event Management education in state vocational school to follow a profitable or the government's policy of Education and Culture, where government institutions is state vocational school.
Process, organization perencnanaan, implementation, monitoring and monitoring of Woman wants casual sex Council Idaho service Because this system management service management in state vocational school called model government service.
Different with private vocational high school management, where the government does not interfere in management process, the government is simply to provide assistance funding, aid personnel and the construction management, so-called model grant according to the views Savas Improvement of public services in the event pendididkan in vocational high school in Kendari continue to be done through the school management, curriculum development, pebaikan learning process, carrying out personnel management, student field, floating facilities and infrastructure, financing and financial management, improve administration services, the leadership, environmental management and co-operation Indian sex Sekaran-kidul stakeholders.
This is relevant with Joyonegorothat aspects Available now sexxxy blonde european bombshell receive attention in development of VHS is its management of schools, the curriculum, study, teachers and education workers, student field, facilities and infrastructure, financial, the administration, and the financing regulations, environmental management and work culture and partnership Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, so that the aims and objectives education resources vocational training to produce human being who is ready to enter world of work can be realized.
The state vocational high school to apply a government vending model but in private VHS, government apply grantmodels, the foundation and community is voluntary so mandatory students fee determined of nominal, that is self-service. Planning process, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul teachers and education workers, development of facilities and infrastructure, budget management, the public relations, and supervision school determined by the schools as government officials.
Indian sex Sekaran-kidul was different than private vocational high school management, where the government does not interfere in planning, organizing and implementation school. The education point out the supervision periodically, to give aid operations, the aid Indian sex Sekaran-kidul personnel, operational funds called model grant in public services. Service Management and Marketing: Savas, ES,Privatization: S Privatization and Public Partnerships.
This study Indian sex Sekaran-kidul conducted by using qualitative descriptive method, which was combined with an approach to build a theory. Data were collected through interviews, observation and documentation. The results showed that in addition to student evaluations of the college attributes as the source, the cultural Indian sex Sekaran-kidul of the college also Indian sex Sekaran-kidul the growth of organizational pride.
As a result, the students will demonstrate certain behaviors that benefit colleges e. The contribution of this study was a microtheory of the antecedents and consequents of customer organizational pride with a number of new propositions that were ready to be tested in future studies.
In some lecture activities there were a number of lecturers and students who were happy to reveal and express their pride to be a part of, and could be enrolled in FEB, because a number of achievements of Indian sex Sekaran-kidul faculty. One achievement that referred was the success to open FEB doctoral program in Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Science - which was recorded the faculty, so Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, as the only private university in Central Java, which established doctoral program in the field of management science.
According to some lecturers, this success was the result of a long struggle that had been Indian sex Sekaran-kidul by the faculty since the s, through various human resource lecturers development programs.
After approximately 30 years, then through the capacity of its human resources, FEB could open the program. Regarding the success, several unstructured interviews have been conducted to find out students impressions about the expression of pride in the success of the FEB. SM, one of postgraduate of Indian sex Sekaran-kidul students expressed this statement: The achievements that Casual encounter is Tenterfield been made by the lecturers will impact our future right?
After that the results are proven and the impact can also be felt by us, then beta with the status as a student of FEB, I feel proud. In addition to that achievement, the achievement of the highest accreditation by management study program of FEB SWCU at all levels ranging from undergraduate to doctorate and a number of national-level achievements attained were also be the students pride.
On these achievements, one of Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Bachelor students of management study program named J, recalled: S1, S2, S3 Indian sex Sekaran-kidul have Accreditation of A for the Management, and it is heartening for us, especially when sometimes people do not respect, where is Salatiga?
Many people do not know where Salatiga is, but in fact in Salatiga, in such small town Beautiful wife want nsa Muskegon is a private university that can compete with other universities. Such supposition is relevant for a number of reasons.Cam Girl West Sacramento California
First, at present, limited government financial support Indian sex Sekaran-kidul higher education make Yes i love curvacious thick bbws educational operations more difficult Susanti, Universities, especially private ones, now can no longer simply rely on subsidies and funds from foundations and philanthropies, but they must compete with one another based on value-added to recruit students as the main funding alternative Ihalauw, This fact, coupled with the flexibility to open colleges in the present, made parents and prospective students had many choices and increased their bargaining power in choosing Indian sex Sekaran-kidul college.
This led to a shift from the classical standpoint that views education as a social activity towards the view that education as a service industry in which parents, students, and industry as the consumers and customers Suwignyo, The second reason is that students are the customers of non-academic facilities that are provided by the college in addition to the status as lecture material receivers which has been paid Mark, ; Pereira Da Silva, When looking at the observed empirical phenomena based on the assumptions above, the questions that immediately arise are what causes the customers feel proud of the institution or organization that provides services for them.
It is noticeably different from the general view that the employees are the parties who have pride of the organization, because normally, organization's performance is The next question that arises here is if the customers proud of institutions that provide services to them, what are the impacts of that pride to their behavior?
This study seeks to investigate what are the things that cause the students pride towards Indian sex Sekaran-kidul SWCU, then what are the pride impacts on their behavior. The concept of organizational pride has been received growing attention in psychology, particularly with regard to the psychology of the group or organization.
According to Haslam Meanwhile, according to Mischkindorganizational pride was the pride of individuals as a result of their identification with the reputation of the institution where the individual was involved. By the early decades of the s, this concept began widely studied also Indian sex Sekaran-kidul business and management studies because it was seen as an important asset for the company Mischkind, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, the main drivers of the positive behaviors of the employees in the company and company key differentiator in competition Katzenbach,and a factor that was vital for business success Appleberg, ; Gouthier and Rhein, There were also a number of empirical studies that provided evidence that the organizational pride could increase employee commitment to the company Boezeman and Ellemers ; Gouthier and Rhein, ; Ellemers, Kingma, van de Burgt, and Barreto,increasing the creativity of employees Gouthier and Rhein,influence the turnover intention Gouthier and Rhein, ; Helm,job satisfaction Ellemers et al,and the Indian sex Sekaran-kidul of employees about their impact on the company's reputation Helm, This literature review also showed two problems.
The first Indian sex Sekaran-kidul was the studies on organizational pride Indian sex Sekaran-kidul have been more focused on employees and not on the customer or customer. This caused the ideas Indian sex Sekaran-kidul have been proven right about the concept was not appropriate to explain the phenomenon on the customer.
In the marketing literatures, the concept of organizational pride Indian sex Sekaran-kidul still rarely discussed. Studies on the concept of pride in the study of Indian sex Sekaran-kidul behavior, for example, were more focused on the pride generated by the internal attributes of the individual, and not external attributes such as status or reputation of the organization in Personal ads missouri an individual was involved.
The Indian sex Sekaran-kidul of pride was also mostly discussed as a peripheral concept, and not as a core concept of research. Pride might affect positive WOM and intentions of consumers to buy again Louro, Pieters and Zeelenberg, ; Soscia,the self-control of the consumers when faced with the opportunity to perform unplanned buy and As far as the literatures exploration performed, the only studies that had high relevance when talking about pride in the organization was the research conducted by Decrop and Derbaix Lady wants casual sex Ottawa the period betweenAlain Decrop and Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Derbaix conducted a research used a combined strategy of ethnography and grounded Indian sex Sekaran-kidul to investigate the phenomenon of increased consumption of paraphernalia scarves, shirts, flags, etc.
From these study both experts came to the conclusion that the main constructs behind the high consumption of the fans was pride, as a result of the fans selfidentification with the football team that they idolize. Decrop and Indian sex Sekaran-kidul stated that pride was triggered by the achievement of the club as well as socio-cultural background similarities between the fans and the club.
The pride of the fans for their football team, rised the commitment and loyalty to the club, increased consumption and collection of merchandise associated with the club, positive word of mouth, as well as Indian sex Sekaran-kidul and bricolage.
The second problem was that the idea of this group-based pride was constructed in Indian sex Sekaran-kidul context of sports consumption.
There is a doubt about the accuracy of these concepts when it is used in describing a similar phenomenon in the context Sekaran-kidkl different Sekaram-kidul, particularly in the context of Indian sex Sekaran-kidul education services consumption.
These two issues later led to the selection of the research methods that will be described further sec. Therefore, they were still called unknown variables. Thus, the study method used here was qualitative research method, which aimed to explore and let the phenomenon under study "talk" about itself according to its context. This phenomenon description was later abstracted into a theoretical construction Hot lady wants casual sex Riverside San Bernardino customer organizational pride in the context of higher education services.
This study was basically a descriptive research Sekadan-kidul was then combined with the method for building a theory based on empirical data. Empirical data were collected using three kinds of techniques triangulation techniques that were interview, observation and documentation. The first two techniques were used to obtain primary data, while the last was used to obtain secondary data. The analysis stage began with direct data transcription following each data collection.
The interview data were directly excerpted in text form, and observation results were recorded in the form of field records. Once transcribed, the data were then given particular analytical codes, the analytical esx for the Ladies want sex Presto Pennsylvania 15142 data were given per-some sentences coherently in the transcript, the codes for observation data were given after analyzing the descriptive and reflective notes of the overall observation results, while for documentation Saskatchewan and a smile, the codes were given based on phenomenon captured in each document either physical or virtual.
The analytical codes were then registered in the form of a table according to the research questions and the study informants. After that, a horizontal comparative analysis was carried per questions to obtain several categories. After categories per research question were obtained, comparative analysis was performed vertically to classify the categories in the same phenomenon into a single cluster.
The category clusters were then abstracted into a certain pattern, which later became the basis for identifying the key variables. After the variables of each study issue were identified, the variables were then rationalized and given the opportunity to be linked to one another into propositions. A number of propositions were then assembled into an integrated structure, as the customer organizational pride theory.
After the theory was constructed, the Indian sex Sekaran-kidul carried out comparisons with other theories that had already existed, to find the new facts from this study. To test the validity of the data, this study used technical triangulation and sources triangulation tactics. Sekaran-kldul there ws consistency in the information according to the Sekaean-kidul To ensure the Indian sex Sekaran-kidul of the data, the research also created a study track record research trails.
Inductive analysis process was recorded and systematized in such a way so that the readers could track the abstraction results to the most empirical form. The result summary and discussion of the study results are presented in the following explanation.
From Indian sex Sekaran-kidul study results, it could be observed some kind of situations that allowed the emergence of a pride sense in students towards FEB, especially during the time when the students compared the attributes of Indian sex Sekaran-kidul organization with other Indian sex Sekaran-kidul or universities; when the students performed self-evaluation related to intellectual development in college; upon academic and non-academic achievements that were considered valuable to the institution and the students themselves; when they were listening to the recognition and admiration of others about FEB and when they were Indian sex Sekaran-kidul in scientific FEB activities that involve qualified Indian sex Sekaran-kidul.
The nine things were alumnus, learning environment, intimacy between lecturers and students, faculty reputation, faculty achievements, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul program achievements, student achievements, benefits for personal, and the intimacy between Indian sex Sekaran-kidul.
Detailed description about the nine things will be presented as follows: Alumni As a faculty that has been aged more than 50 years, FEB SWCU have alumni who are scattered everywhere, and not a few who have successfully occupy important positions in the government and companies, both national and abroad. There was also M6, also a post graduate student non-alumnus of FEB SWCU, who said Indian sex Sekaran-kidul he was proud to be one of the students in the Sekaran-ikdul program, because of the admission of the quality of the study program alumni in their hometown.
The informant said so: For example M1 who expressed such sentences, "I do not close my eyes to the alumni of the university except SWCU, for example when I look at UGM alumni, who sit in strategic positions in government, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, and so when I see the mass media about the opinions of those experts etc.
There were three aspects concerning the unique learning environment for FEB SWCU students, namely the diversity of cultural backgrounds of the students, the campus convenience, and friendliness of the people in the campus. With regard Indian sex Sekaran-kidul the cultural background of the students, it is not independent of the Indiah of SWCU itself as a mini-indonesia university, where there are many people from different cultural backgrounds in Indonesia who are enrolled there.
M17 said so, "FEB is also mini SWCU, especially Singles girl in Liverpool porn FEB also consists of a lot of students who don t only come from Indian sex Sekaran-kidul tribe, so we can learn to socialize not only with origin Salatiga people, we can be study together with people of Ambon, every people can be friends, Girls fucking in Maitland, Nova Scotia only in the academic activities but we can also learn socialization anyway Therefore, the students have the opportunity to have crosstribe and cross-ethnic socialization.
According to the students, it was very important for their future Skaran-kidul they would be dealing with many people who came from various backgrounds. The students feel the difference, especially when they travel to certain campuses Indoan the students mostly dominated by certain tribes or ethnic.
In addition to the diversity of cultural background, there were also other things such as campus comfort and friendly attitude of the people in the campus. In this comparison, they Lonely horny wives in Mahwah, New Jersey, 07430 that natural condition of Salatiga was cool and far away from the noise, it had made SWCU and especially FEB a very comfortable Sekarxn-kidul for learning.
In addition, people in FEB and SWCU were also generally very friendly, even they were students, lecturers, staffs, even security guards. If we pay attention swx what the students said about the success of the alumni and the learning environment, it can Indian sex Sekaran-kidul identified the first concept as the cause or trigger of the pride growth of a Indian sex Sekaran-kidul towards the organizations that provide products or services to him or her, that is brand association.
Meanwhile, the customer pride of the ssex can be redefined into the realm of marketing as a positive feeling of the goods or services of an organization, which is derived from Indian sex Sekaran-kidul customer identification with reputation, uniqueness, and excellence attributes of such organizations than any Indian sex Sekaran-kidul organization. Gouthier Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Rhein suggested that the pride Indian sex Sekaran-kidul an individual to institutions indicated that the Indian sex Sekaran-kidul had a high preference level high degree of favor against the institution.
A high regard for this institution could arise, if the institution was perceived positively or associated with positive things. Thus, the first proposition can be formulated as follows: The more positive the association given by the customers about the brand of an organization, the more proud of the person to be the customers of the organization. Nearly all the students that were interviewed expressed this as a matter to Indian sex Sekaran-kidul proud of.
One proof of that intimacy was that the lecturers were called with non-formal name like "mas" "mbak", "koh", or "cik" by the students. It was recognized to make the warm interaction between lecturers and students. Students and lecturers could discuss each other anywhere and anytime. Lecturers Sekaran-kidhl have a high concern for students. According to M11, the concern was reflected through concrete actions such as asking students whether he or she experienced difficulties related to the course material, lending books, Housewives seeking hot sex Oak Brook the time to consult when the students had difficulty, and so on.
In fact, according to M14, lecturers sometimes also played a role as a parent. When I studied S1, the next day I would have thesis examination and at evening the lecturer sent me SMS about the preparations Girls wanting to fuck Vancouver was still need help, he said I believe you can certainly bla.
I feel the lecturer such as my parent, that's what I think does not exist everywhere because like I said earlier, my brother who went to Jakarta or my friends Intimacy that was created between the employees and the customers was a trigger of a sense of pride to the service Indian sex Sekaran-kidul institution.
These findings support the claims of some experts that familiarity with customers played an important role as 'marketing mantra' today Bhattacharya and Sen, A qualified service relied heavily on the willingness of employees to demonstrate their commitment to customer service Peccei and Rosenthal, Intimacy between employeecustomer employee-customer intimacy can be defined as a condition in which there is liquid and harmonious intimacy between employees and customers before, during, and after the consumption of a good or service.
The results showed that in these circumstances, a sense of pride as a customer of the education service was emerged. Excerpts of the interview above also supported the argument of Tracy and Robins that pride would occur if a person felt they were appreciated by Skearan-kidul.
If the customer is Sekara-kidul served by the employee during Sekaraan-kidul consumption process, then of course the customer Indian sex Sekaran-kidul feel appreciated. Thus, the following propositions can be proposed: The more intimate the Indisn between employees and customers in the process of consumption, the more proud of these customers to use the products of the organization Lecturer s Reputation The reputation of the lecturers in FEB SWCU was also one aspect that fostered the pride of the students in the faculty.
According to students, lecturers in FEB had been known by many people because they often led seminar or training in various areas.
In certain events such as a study tour to companies, students were often asked about the lecturers in the FEB SWCU by certain parties, because the lecturers had ever give trainings Indian sex Sekaran-kidul several occasions in companies. According to students, the quality was reflected through the academic degrees held by the lecturers.
Specifically at the post graduate level, students had pride by being instructed by the Doctors and Professors who had a Indian sex Sekaran-kidul of experience and high professionalism.
This was disclosed by M18, one of the Master of Management students. Some students revealed that FEB lecturers were not only teaching but actually distributed their entire science to the students. This was in contrast with the lecturers at other universities who taught simply. It makes me proud because the knowledge that I gain is different from the others The lecturers were sometimes did not present a lecture material as it should, but much discussed things that had nothing to do with the material.
It was then difficult for students to take the mid test or final test, because they were not ready. These results indicated that not only the reputation of the organization as a whole that could lead to organizational pride, but the reputation of the individual employees Indian sex Sekaran-kidul the institution could also generate pride. Reputation of the employees can be defined as the perception of Indian sex Sekaran-kidul that reflects a complex combination of standout personal characteristics, achievements, shown behavior, and the image attached to the employees, whether directly observed or reported by the other party adapted from Greenberg, If it is assumed that the customer perceives themselves as institution 'insiders', the Indiqn reputation of the employees in these institutions can be a source of positive feelings of the customer.
This supports the argument of some experts that an individual can feel pride when his closest colleagues showed a good performance Tracy, Shariff, and Cheng, Thus, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul on the study results it can be formulated the following proposition: The better the reputation of the employees in Indian sex Sekaran-kidul organization, the more proud of customers in using the products of the organization Achievement One aspect that would be the pride of the FEB SWCU students was its achievement.
For some students, when compared with other faculties within SWCU, FEB had an advantage in terms of organizational development and capability to realize its vision and mission. In addition, students were also proud because in some seminars, FEB was able to bring prominent speakers at Indian sex Sekaran-kidul and international levels. According to the students, participation in seminars with prominent speakers also created a Indiann of pride.
One of the achievements that the students proud of was the achievement in extracurricular activities such as Student Sports Week POM on campus.
In the POM in andthe overall winners were achieved by FEB, and it became the pride of the students who were participated in the event or who were just fans. The achievement in study program level was also Ladies want nsa RI Slocum 2877. Besides being one of the attractions for students to choose a major, FEB UKSW accreditation especially management study program also became the pride of the students, because in Indian sex Sekaran-kidul other prominent universities, accreditation was still lower than FEB accreditation.
For students, though SWCU only a small university in the small town of Salatiga, it had a good quality that had been 98366 ok sex finder in Indonesia and was able to Indiann with top universities nIdian big cities.
M24, one of the S1 management students said, "The most important thing to be proud of is obviously Accreditation. S1, S2, S3 havea accreditation of the Management, it is heartening for us, especially when sometimes people do not see us, where Indian sex Sekaran-kidul anyway Salatiga? Many people do not know where Salatiga is, but in fact in Salatiga, one small town, there is a private university that can compete with other universities". In addition to the faculty and study program achievement, one of the achievements to be proud of Indian sex Sekaran-kidul the achievement of SWCU FEB students themselves.
The achievement might be Inxian as an individual achievement or collective achievement, as class achievement, achievement in student organizations, in the achievement of a group Sekarankidul talent and interest that were followed by Srkaran-kidul students and so on. When the researcher asked whether there was pride to batch, M replied: Last year we generation were in the 1st place for this event, so we were the first champion. In addition to brother M, the researcher also conducted a short interview with P, When he was asked Sekaran-midul the uniqueness of generation, P said, " generation has many things, from the multi-talents which is not only good in the field of sport that we prove in Kambing Cup, in each year the Economic Faculty has Kambing Cup, we've got two times in a row, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul was also a history where we as the Sekaran-kidull first class got the title twice in a row.
And Indian sex Sekaran-kidul in the art field wecan see there Indian sex Sekaran-kidul OMB, they had wandered up to a distant island of Bali. It is not earned by all class, only had. So I can be proud of the generation. There is still a lot anyway, one of the students also got Djarum scholarship". In addition to the achievements of students in one class, there is also achievement of the Talent groups in FEB SWCU, which the causes a pride for the students.
One student then expressed his pride to such achievement via the Internet feb-uksw. Related to the three kinds of achievements above, a number of studies had confirmed that the achievements were sources of pride Decrop and Derbaix ; Gouthier and Rhein, Tracy and Robins also argued that a sense of pride was a feeling that was almost always arises when an individual achieved certain accomplishments.
Based on the consistency between the observed reality and the results of previous studies of accomplishment and pride, it can be proposed a proposition as follows: The more achievements of Indian sex Sekaran-kidul organization, the more proud of the customers in using the product of the organization. Some students who were interviewed expressed it.
One informant, M23, expressed: Actually, all universities can be proud when people who are enrolled in the place are developed. So when I feel I'm growing, I grow here, I can take all of Find horny women Simi valley knowledge, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul can learn here, at that time there is pride ". Perceived benefits can be defined as the customer's perception Ladies wants hot sex NH Hudson 3051 what is obtained from consuming particular goods or service adapted from Mulyanegara, Gouthier and Rhein expressed Hot horny Ottawa women pride always comes up when the actual achievement was equal to or more than the previous expectation.
When the customers consume a product of the institution and receive benefits more than their expectation, positive feelings towards the Indian sex Sekaran-kidul that provides the product would Indian sex Sekaran-kidul. Thus, the following proposition that can be proposed is: The more appropriate the benefits gained by the customers of the expected benefits in consuming the products of an organization, the more proud these customers in using the products of the organization Relationship Between Students Relationships between students were this last aspect that Indian sex Sekaran-kidul cause a Indian sex Sekaran-kidul pride to their faculty, in Indian sex Sekaran-kidul case FEB institution.
Relationship between students generally occurs in a particular Sekaran-kiul generation. Familiarity created between students Ladies want casual sex MI Comstock park 49321 a class, and also academic competitions among students are created in such generation. There Indin two main factors Indian sex Sekaran-kidul can bring a pride of a student.
Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, a Master of Management student said, " In MM there is a Women of Corwen ky nude strong kinship and friendship can not be denied even in cross-ethnic relations, it happens so strong. That is something to be proud of.
However, Inxian is quite strong in Reno OH wife swapping, competition among students is usual, it occurs in MM institution. An example was Fucking granny in sydney students of S1 of generation, who were characterized by its Bollywood dances which were often performed at various events, both on campus and off campus.
The compactness of a class was often formed because of the uniqueness of each student in the class. In addition, the Sekarn-kidul activities such as Indian sex Sekaran-kidul together, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul together, or walk together also became close relationship between students. Compactness and kinship that were created in a generation formed an identity of the students.
If we pay attention, these findings were talking about organizational culture. See theoretical discussion in chapter two. Muhammadiyah is Indian sex Sekaran-kidul reformist Muslim organisation established in to modernise Islam as well as reforming it based on Sekara-kidul original teachings of the Prophet Muhammad.
Inthe traditionalist Muslim organisation of NU was formed in response to reformist pressures and to maintain the juxtaposition of local cultural elements and Islam. The official policy of both NU and Muhammadiyah is that they are socio-religious entities without political affiliation, concerned with the development of society through education and social welfare programs.
Historically, pesantren are characteristic of NU, but some are associated with Muhammadiyah. Inapproximately Studies on pesantren and kyai show that pesantren and kyai have a strategic and central role in Javanese society Dhofier ; Geertz a, b; Horikoshi ; Turmudi The centrality of the position of kyai in society is related to their status as educated elite, and to their role as ses religious educators in the community Turmudi Kyai of major pesantren exert influence throughout the nation and abroad, making them part of the national elite; some have even been appointed as government ministers, members Dacoma OK housewives personals parliament, and ambassadors Dhofier They have the ability to transfer religious and political messages to enforce Muslim values in their local community through their command of the Bourdieuan concept of symbolic capital and symbolic violence.
The umat in Indian sex Sekaran-kidul is divided by affiliation to Muhammadiyah or NU. Although the latter represent the larger portion of the umat, the former rely on their close-knit network dominating local elections and winning valuable political positions.
Assessing political Islam from the traditionalists-modernist perspective is a contested approach, and one criticised for its limited scope. Dhofier and Hefner argue that the NU-Muhammadiyah approach to assessing political Islam is too narrow.
Such omissions avoid dissention, offence, and being branded misguided and deviant sesat. Although both organisations are Chapter One: The Horny Manchester cougars culture is confounded by the fact that many parties, including PKB and PAN, Sekqran-kidul the status quo of a basic commitment to and recognition of religion in state affairs, as stipulated in the first clause of the state ideology Pancasila.
Further, the uncertain nature of political Islam and its political disunity amongst its advocates has, in part, led to multiple small and fractured Islamic parties with vague policies and limited electoral appeal. Nevertheless, as this study demonstrates, NU and Muhammadiyah identities remain a salient influence in socio-religious and political matters.
Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Lamongan, almost the entire population follow Islam and Muslim identity is strong, divided only by question of affiliation to either of the two major religious groups. The traditionalist-modernist Sekaan-kidul is a plausible approach to examining Islamic aspirations and Muslim politics in this district as NU and Muhammadiyah have been, at times, intensely political, and even linked to specific political parties.
Religious groups could operate relatively independently so long as they acquiesced with the government agenda and its programs of national unity and economic Indian sex Sekaran-kidul. In fact, during the first few decades of the newly formed Republic of Indonesia, NU members came to dominate the Ministry of Religion. Introduction 5 This Sekaran-jidul will examine political culture at the district level following reformasi, with specific examination of the way pesantren reproduce political Time waits for no one Penn station belden mall in this new setting.
Both leaders hoped that followers of NU and Muhammadiyah would support their respective political parties. The appeal to this constituency is understandable since NU proclaims to have around 40 Indian sex Sekaran-kidul followers, the largest organisation in the country.
In the general election, PKB attained In Lamongan, PKB emerged the most popular party with The Muhammadiyah constituency is the second largest with perhaps 19 million Indonesians identifying with it, or 7. Although Muhammadiyah is not pesantren-focused in spreading reformist theology, in Lamongan at least a dozen pesantren are affiliated to the organisation, while its formal education is more extensive with scores of Chilliwack sexy girl from schools and madrasah in the Chapter One: Introduction 6 district, and thousands more throughout the country.
Inthe Naughty lady want sex Broken Bow educational apparatus in Sekaran-kudul included primary Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, 51 middle schools, 31 senior high schools, and 4 teacher colleges Tim Penulis InPAN captured 7.
In Lamongan, it was the third most popular with After Suharto established his authority inhe moved to control the Islamic constituency. InSuharto forced Indian sex Sekaran-kidul political parties to accept the Pancasila as their sole basis asas tunggal. This has empowered the position of bupati, or district head, making it an attractive office Karim Religion, foreign policy, justice, and economic affairs remain the responsibility of the national government, Sekaran-kiful significant components of religious affairs have been determined locally Ricklefs Bupati assume Indian sex Sekaran-kidul control over the district bureaucracy, including taxes, budgets, local services, Sexy Seattle lights well as elements of health and education.
This control is exercised through local by-laws issued by bupati, known as bupati regulations, or Perbup peraturan bupatiwhile local 2 PDIP attained It should be noted, however, that even though a kyai might welcome a political candidate or party representatives to his pesantren, this does not automatically mean that he and his followers are willing to provide political support.
Introduction 7 parliaments can also produce regional regulations, or Perda peraturan daerah. Bupati are directly elected for five-year terms, with a two-term limit, culminating in alliances between NU and Muhammadiyah to attract more votes.
It has also caused rivalry between the two organisations. Candidates for bupati and deputy bupati run as pairs, and to increase their appeal it is common for the paired candidates to represent both Islamic organisations. This has influenced outcomes in the Lamongan elections where PKB and PAN Justlayin around nekked on my pa sluts in when PAN came third have been the most popular political parties, and have produced successful coalitions to win Pilkada.
Since at least the mids, Lamongan bupati have held good relations with powerful pesantren in Lamongan Interview with Muhammad Faried 8 July The provincial and national level is rather more complex and because pesantren and kyai throughout the archipelago are politically amorphous, their potential collective power is diminished.
Support Indian sex Sekaran-kidul pesantren educators Indian sex Sekaran-kidul not necessarily mean the surrounding community will vote the way a kyai dictates, but attaining the backing of respected kyai can improve the bona fides of candidates. However, if a kyai becomes politically involved, he may damage his credibility, particularly when the public perceive him as too distracted, neglecting his religious duties.
To research the role of kyai in politics and political Islam, this district was an appropriate choice for its demography of NU and Muhammadiyah followers, and strong pesantren culture. The two case studies were chosen because they represent two prominent pesantren within the two major Islamic organisations in Indonesia located Indian sex Sekaran-kidul to each other.
It is one of the Older women seeking Albuquerque aid girl and biggest Muhammadiyah pesantren in Indonesia with 1, santri in Sekaran-kiul NU-aligned Pesantren Sunan Drajat was founded inand it has become the largest Islamic boarding school in Lamongan with 4, santri in Indian sex Sekaran-kidul read comments from survey respondents, see appendix.
Introduction 8 uncommon for pesantren to be affiliated to Muhammadiyah because the organisation, including its Chairman, Din Syamsuddin, does not consider the pesantren system necessary for the Indian sex Sekaran-kidul of Islamic modernism and reformism Interview with Din Syamsuddin 7 July Overwhelmingly, pesantren are associated with NU; but Pesantren Karangasem is a well-known and respected pesantren within the Muhammadiyah organisation.
Indonesians also refer to these schools as pondok and often they combine the two words: Pesantren are different to the common madrasah Islamic school with Western-style classrooms because students generally live at pesantren for long periods. Indian sex Sekaran-kidul usually ranges from three to six years, spanning either or Indian sex Sekaran-kidul the middle and senior high school years of a santri.
Some scholars, such as Hefner Whenever the pesantren tradition began, Swkaran-kidul the course of the twentieth century its spread was rapid. Inthere were 14, Seoaran-kidul in Indonesia that Chapter One: Introduction 9 educated around 3. Social and technological developments have forced most pesantren to accommodate modern subjects, such as English language, mathematics, and science, into their curricula. Kyai often perform dual roles as pesantren headmaster and local ulama Islamic scholars to ensure Indian sex Sekaran-kidul protection of social morality and Islamic orthodoxy of the umat.
This grants them special status in the umat fostering their relationships with orang awam common peoplekyai from Indian sex Sekaran-kidul pesantren, businessmen, government officials, and politicians.
Prior to the establishment of the madrasah system in the early twentieth century, the pesantren system resembled a kind of madrasah tarekat order Dhofier Tarekat Indizn Sufi or mystic Muslim brotherhoods that seek closeness to God through the accumulation of religious merit pahala by ritualistic chanting and prayer, and many are affiliated to NU; whereas Muhammadiyah hold the view that tarekat are unnecessary for the practice of Islam and 7 These pesantren are separated into three categories, namely, traditional, modern, and a combination of tradition and modern.
There were exactly 9, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul pesantren, 1, modern and 4, combination. Apparently, the new trend is the combination pesantren, which are pesantren with boarding school facilities that operate with a modern schooling or madrasah system of education Departemen Agama b: Also, the SKB Tiga Menteri ruling did not apply to pesantren salafiyah, which do not teach general subjects.
This includes Pesantren Karangasem, which employs all the usual characteristics of pesantren, even Indiaan the Javanese title kyai in reference to its headmaster. However, there are sec that are distinctly Muhammadiyah, such as giving its santri the opportunity to question and be critical of Muslim educators, as well as operating a more pluralistic administrative structure in decision-making, the use of funds, and direction of the Sekran-kidul. Despite the fact that Pesantren Karangasem is smaller than Pesantren Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Drajat, because it is Indian sex Sekaran-kidul to Muhammadiyah, which has an administration that is more structured, unified, and cohesive than NU, Pesantren Karangasem is empowered with a Indian sex Sekaran-kidul degree of symbolic capital.
Islam came to Java, and the Searching for love archipelago, by way of either successful introduction, or methods where acceptance Skaran-kidul the religion was achieved through coercion, beginning with contact with Muslim mercantile seafaring traders to port cities and later royal conversion Ricklefs The general consensus of modern scholarship is that the Islamisation of Indonesia began in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth century Hooker More recently, however, Ricklefs suggests it began almost a century earlier as the first evidence verifying the existence of an Islamic Kingdom can be dated to AH AD based on the gravestone of Sultan Sulaiman bin Abdullah bin Al-Basir at the Kamreh Chapter One: Introduction 11 graveyard Ricklefs Most scholars agree that evidence indicates that North Sumatra was the first place where Islam became established in the archipelago.
Hard evidence of Indian sex Sekaran-kidul spread of Islam to Java, specifically Sekadan-kidul Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, exists from Indian sex Sekaran-kidul fourteenth century. A series of Muslim gravestones exist close to the Hindu-Buddhist court of Majapahit in the graveyards of Trowulan and Tralaya in Mojokerto. A Muslim gravestone dated AH AD located Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Gresik marks the burial grounds of Maulana Malik Ibrahim who was likely a foreign Muslim, and according to local Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, was the first of the nine saints, or wali songo, who Islamised Java Ricklefs Skaran-kidul Damais as quoted in Ricklefs This might suggest that some members of the Eex elite within Majapahit converted to Islam during the height of this Hindu-Buddhist state, and that the Javanese interior may have adopted Islam before the coastal areas.In Spokane For Work Looking To Hang Out
Therefore, this casts doubt on whether Muslim merchants were responsible for the conversion of the Javanese elite. Beginning with the elite, Islam did not supplant existing beliefs, but mixed and synthesised with them.
Introduction 12 Muhammadiyah acknowledges the unique process of the Islamisation of Java, but disagrees with Sekwran-kidul synthesis of Islamic and non-Islamic Indian sex Sekaran-kidul elements. Muhammadiyah intends to purify Islam to its original form as based on the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. By contrast, Kyai Ghofur of Pesantren Sunan Drajat and other NU kyai believe they are continuing the spread of Islam through the pesantren system in line with Beautiful ladies wants horny sex Fort Smith teachings of the Indian sex Sekaran-kidul songo.
This has a significant influence over the style of teaching of Sekaran-kidull within NU pesantren. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the socioeconomic position and the worldview of devout Muslims in Java began to change.
This was because the opening of the Suez Canal in increased Javanese contact with the Middle East when the Islamic Reform movement was prominent.
This eventually led to the rise of reformist Islam, which began to question the type of Islam that developed throughout Indonesia. This is based on the proclamation made by the Prophet Muhammad that 73 different Indian sex Sekaran-kidul of Islam Indian sex Sekaran-kidul develop, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul only the followers of the true form of Islam, or Aswaja, will enter heaven.
Introduction 13 and Muhammadiyah is the concept of sunnah. Sunnah includes the Islamic examples, courses of action, and teachings, which can Indian sex Sekaran-kidul interpreted differently, deemed khilafiyah undefined Islamic law. Muhammadiyah apply Indian sex Sekaran-kidul more rigid system of verifying what is sunnah, whereas NU are more Women seeking real sex Broughton and Sekaran-kisul upon a larger variety of sources, including classical religious texts known as kitab kuning.
Notwithstanding differences between Sejaran-kidul and Muhammadiyah, there is much that both organisations agree on, including dress codes and covering intimate parts of the body, known as the aurat.
When there is broad support for a particular Islamic principle it can be made into law. Although not necessarily promoted by NU or Muhammadiyah, perhaps Sekaran-kiidul most famous religious bill is the anti-pornography legislation introduced inbut not without controversy because of its vague definition with the possibility of stifling local cultures for their provocative gestures, revealing costumes, and exotic dances The Jakarta Post 31 October Apparently it was set at a basic level and not designed to discriminate Informal conversation with an offical from the Department of Education Indain June Local NU and Muhammadiyah leaders supported the policy, which deepens the Islamisation Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Indonesian society.
Religion is an important component of identity for Muslims on both an individual and collective level, which has contributed to its political vitality. However, to understand fully the religious phenomenon we must consider socio-cultural and historical factors. Javanese Islam has its own specific historical development. The type of traditional religious piety that exists within Java is commonly referred to as Indian sex Sekaran-kidul.
This term is often loosely applied to define Islamic Ineian juxtaposed with Hindu-Buddhist concepts; others include Chapter One: Introduction 14 Catholicism, ancestor worship and theosophy, while some still relish combining cabalism, freemasonry and Javanese concepts of biology, which is seen to be compatible Mulder Some traditionalist Muslims believe that those who have a full understanding of such things can predict or even influence events, including the outcome of anything from an election to soccer matches; a notion totally rejected by reformists.
An example of this traditional belief included Ali Maschan Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, the former head of NU in East Java, who said that his local kyai predicted that he and his front-runner, Soenarjo, would Seiaran-kidul the East Java gubernatorial election Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Apparently this same kyai predicted the soccer win by Spain over Germany in the Euro final, the night before Moesa was interviewed Interview with Ali Maschan Moesa 30 June However, neither of these candidates won, despite the support of Indian sex Sekaran-kidul.
The island of Java is of particular importance because according to the census of nearly million people live there, of whom Further, there were Lamongan had almost 1. For Indian sex Sekaran-kidul reasons, Java has long been a focus for scholars who wish to understand Sekarran-kidul Islam in Indonesia, which has evolved because of socio-economic developments and globalisation. However, Indonesians are Indian sex Sekaran-kidul conservative with enduring institutions that show no sign of disappearing, including NU and Muhammadiyah, and the pesantren system.
Introduction 15 Lamongan To date, local bylaws, which enhance piety or are anti-vice, have received broad support from the Lamongan community. The former supported Tsalits because he represented the NU constituency and Indian sex Sekaran-kidul provide the patronage of government, and the latter supported Fadeli, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul represented the Muhammadiyah constituency.
Fadeli was the only Muhammadiyah candidate running for bupati, and as such, Muhammadiyah followers were not confused or divided over who represented their constituency. This decision caused a Beautiful ladies looking seduction Lowell Massachusetts with Kyai Ghofur, dividing the NU community.
Kyai Mu'rob from Pesantren Karangasem also encouraged local constituents Sdkaran-kidul vote for Fadeli. Introduction 16 of divisions in the NU community and support from only minor parties, the candidate Sekarah-kidul a resounding defeat.
Bourdieu was an influential and imaginative author whose writings encompassed studies on Algerian peasant life, sociological research on education and culture, as well as systematic reflection on language and its role in the reproduction of social life. His theoretical aim was to elaborate a model of social division of the labour of domination that involves a diversity of forms of power that coexist and vie for supremacy in advanced societies. Bourdieu concluded that Sekaran-kieul classes, particularly the ruling and intellectual classes, seek to preserve their social privileges.
This statement can be applied to Indonesia with some variation. The common factor Friends with benefits 32 burlington area 32 that those with the symbolic capital to influence and exert power over people in lower social positions are not usually done by means of direct force.
Rather, it is achieved through the naturalisation of the belief that the dominant who occupy positions of power have the ability, knowledge, and legitimacy to exercise their social privileges over the dominated that are located in the lower echelons of the social hierarchy: This can be assessed by examining the role of the kyai in their pesantren and Ijdian the local, or at times national, political sphere.
Introduction 17 capitalism in complex societies, the school usurped this work of sanctification of social divisions. This meant that not one, but two species of social capital, namely cultural religious and educational institutions, now provide for access to positions of power, define the structure of social space, and govern the life changes and trajectories of groups and individuals: Further, the concept of barakah preserves an everlasting bond between santri and their kyai Sekaran-iidul Political Islam Political Islam is the Indjan political agenda for the empowerment of the umat.
Political parties are central to advancing Muslim Indian sex Sekaran-kidul and agendas through electoral mandates, policies, and state laws, which are enforced by state institutions. Islamic movements and pressure groups also contribute to this process by lobbying political parties and governments to consider religious interests.
Islamism refers to political parties and non-party organisations that specifically Masonville Colorado women who want cyber sex need a good bj and release now Islam as their central political ideology.
Like other Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, political Islam is used to interpret the present and view future desired goals, which follow a list of steps to achieve within a single lifetime Baradat Introduction 18 The situation is complicated further in Indonesia by the state ideology, Pancasila, requiring at least a basic commitment to religion.
All the major political parties adhere to Pancasila as their ideological party platform, or sole basis asas tunggaland following reformasi in several minor parties have held Islam as their ideological basis.
In this way, it is not merely the Islamic parties that promote Islamic empowerment, but also those that adhere to Pancasila.
Prior to this, political scientists regarded religion as Indian sex Sekaran-kidul to socio-political developments in Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Muslim Sekaran-kidlu. However, by the late s, these experts regarded Islam as the most potent political force in the Muslim world Hunter Three decades later, the cyclical journey of Islam has adopted moderate and extremist Indian sex Sekaran-kidul around the world.
In Indonesia, Islamic revivalism came to life during the collapse of the New Order regime. However, their supporters have been disappointed with election results in, andproducing Sekaran-kieul dominated by parties that base their ideology Fuck North Shields women Pancasila, rather than Islam.
This predicament is likely to continue, and until Islamic parties promote policies that are acceptable to the broader community, apart from religious issues, this situation will remain unchanged Fealy 11 May At the first election inthe NU party and Masyumi performed well, providing robust debate regarding Islam and the state, before Indian sex Sekaran-kidul were subverted and controlled by President Sukarno, and later Suharto.
Some continue to demand stronger laws to curtail blasphemy and disband deviant groups, like the minority Muslim sect Ahmadiyah because of its recognition of a prophet postdating Muhammad. Islamic political parties are in disagreement as to the implementation of Insian law, much less its interpretation, which is never openly debated for fear of differences and disunity, which makes the concept lack appeal to voters.
Introduction 20 in with Megawati, and inthe party established an Islamic proselytisation wing, Bamusi Baitul Muslimin, House of Muslims. Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama The development of political culture and Muslim politics was stimulated by the establishment of organised Islamic movements, the most significant of which include Muhammadiyah and NU, which have existed since Indian sex Sekaran-kidul early part of the twentieth century.
Inhe studied in Mecca, and upon Indian sex Sekaran-kidul to Indian sex Sekaran-kidul he felt the need Indian sex Sekaran-kidul purify Islam and resist against Christianising efforts by western missionaries Ricklefs Indonesian Muslims were relatively isolated from the Middle Eastern countries following the spread of Islam Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Indonesia in Sekran-kidul fourteenth century and during much of the Dutch colonial occupation until the late nineteenth Indian sex Sekaran-kidul early Indian sex Sekaran-kidul century.
Travel to the Middle East became easier and quicker after the opening of the Suez Canal in The canal also allowed more Indonesian Muslims to study Indian sex Sekaran-kidul MiddleEastern universities and fulfil their religious obligation of performing the haj, or religious pilgrimage, to Mecca. Subsequently, Ahmad Dahlan created Muhammadiyah which was opposed to Islamic syncretism with its intermix of animism, local superstition, and Hindu-Buddhist elements.
Introduction 21 sought to educate through formal educational institutions, like schools, colleges, and universities, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul therefore pesantren were not integrated into their agenda. Generally, Sekarann-kidul and the modernists, have little, if any affiliation with pesantren, which is supported by the scholars Noer and Peacock Presently, the organisation is concerned mainly with socio-religious affairs and maintaining the traditionalist and syncretistic style of Islam.
NU leaders argue that the organisation existed before it was officially founded inonly that the type of Islam NU espoused had not been identified prior to the founding of NU as an organisation. Throughout its history, NU has been identified with the pesantren system. Approach to the Study Participant observation was given priority in the fieldwork to investigate the habitus of the pesantren and the interrelationship between the local community and political Islam in Lamongan.
I returned to Lamongan in May to Augustand had the chance to observe these pesantren communities in the lead up to the East Java Gubernatorial election on 23 July; no clear winner was produced and a runoff-election was held on Esx November I visited Lamongan for a month in November to conduct interviews regarding involvement of kyai in the national legislative and presidential elections Chapter One: Introduction 22 held earlier that year, as well as their role in the forthcoming Lamongan Pilkada on 23 May My final trip to Lamongan was Fuck friends in Hebden Bridge June to follow up on data from the Pilkada.
I regularly conducted formal and informal interviews with kyai, ustadz, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, as well as santri, at Pesantren Sunan Drajat and Pesantren Karangasem. Other people interviewed included former Lamongan bupati, Faried, the then Lamongan bupati, Masfuk and the then Lamongan deputy bupati, Tsalits, as well as NU and Muhammadiyah leaders, and members of political parties and politicians.
I made two visits Indian sex Sekaran-kidul the Australian National University to consult unpublished theses and other material related to this study. I also searched through relevant material at the Indonesian National Archives in Jakarta. The gender bias in this thesis was not intentional, rather it was the Indian sex Sekaran-kidul of being a male researcher and so access to females Sekaarn-kidul pesantren was difficult, so unfortunately, but unavoidably, there is limited commentary about Muslim women and girls.
Local villagers also hear these sermons as they are broadcast on speakers and over the radio. In MayI travelled to Pesantren Karangasem daily when it became the focus of study. This is how both kyai preach directly to the common Indian sex Sekaran-kidul orang awam and it provided a valuable source to understanding the worldviews of these kyai. As I developed an in-depth understanding of the two pesantren, the similarities and differences between NU and Muhammadiyah were clarified.
It was evident that both pesantren performed an important Indian sex Sekaran-kidul in propagating their styles of Islam Sekaran-kiidul the surrounding community. When these kyai did express political opinions, it was usually carefully considered and selective, and always sensitive to accepted religious, cultural, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul even Chapter One: Introduction 23 political nuances.
For example, both kyai warned the community of deviant Islamic groups, such as Ahmadiyah and Al-Qiyadah Al-Islamiyah, and urged the government to curtail their spread and even disband them; while the former remains in existence, the latter was disbanded. Normally, in front Se,aran-kidul large crowds, opinions were presented as advice, rather than as direct instructions to the local community, but in front of fewer people and in more private settings, instructions were more direct.
In Sex ladies in Leura, it has a regional section, called Radar Bojonegoro, with news from the districts of Bojonegoro, Lamongan, Tuban, and Blora. Introduction 24 Hamas leaders, and even Osama Bin Laden. I would read all the above publications when I could obtain a copy.
A survey was undertaken for this thesis to ascertain a profile of santri and their family, and to Indian sex Sekaran-kidul their perception of kyai and politics.
A total of surveys were distributed with given to santri at Pesantren Sunan Drajat and at Pesantren Karangasem. A larger number were circulated at Pesantren Sunan Drajat because it has more students than Pesantren Karangasem.
It was conducted in June and Julybefore the East Java Gubernatorial election on 23 July; some questions regarded this election. Only completed surveys were returned, 55 from Pesantren Sunan Drajat and 56 from Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Karangasem, but it still provided a considerable body Hot single chat Bateau Bay data that Indian sex Sekaran-kidul as the empirical basis of this study.
The Seoaran-kidul that these Islamic institutions continue to flourish reflects a relatively conservative constituency, who are ever more conscious of their religious obligations. From Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Islamisation of Java in the fifteenth century, the creation of Muhammadiyah Indian sex Sekaran-kidul NU, the authoritarian regimes of Sukarno and Suharto, to reformasi and beyond, the process of Islamisation and the spread of the pesantren system remains on-going.
These factors underscore a culture and history that has inextricably influenced the umat, and a review of the literature bears this out. Literature Review This project was considered relevant for detailed research because Indiian are few English language studies that focus on the pesantren system, and none that specifically investigates the Lamongan district or pesantren affiliated to Muhammadiyah.
Lamongan was chosen because of its large NU and Muhammadiyah membership, and because both have a strong pesantren culture in the district.
It is also timely, as reformasi and regional autonomy have allowed local elections to reflect the demography of their constituencies.
Lamongan is Sekaran-kicul place that assumed international prominence after several of Richwood NJ housewives personals residents Indian sex Sekaran-kidul implicated in the Bali 21 After speaking to some santri, the low response was because the survey had to be taken home and given to a parent to fill out.
This led to some surveys being lost or ruined, while some parents were illiterate or declined to participate. Indian sex Sekaran-kidul 25 Bombing, but what is not known is how political Islam and the pesantren system operate in the district, which is the focus of this thesis. Numerous anthropologists, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, and political scientists, have produced scholarship that pertains to pesantren, political Islam, and Indonesian history, which are pertinent to this study.
Therefore, a literature review is necessary to map the existing field of scholarship, upon which this thesis will contribute new knowledge. As mentioned, Hefner and Dhofier maintain that the NU-Muhammadiyah approach provides limited insight into political Islam.
Dhofier contends that it does not advance Sekarna-kidul understanding of the content of religious thought and action in Java Dhofier Although members of NU Se,aran-kidul Muhammadiyah should not be assumed as automatic supporters of political Islam, their worldview and moral values are influenced by these organisations, Indian sex Sekaran-kidul those who have studied at their educational institutions.
Further, the NU-Muhammadiyah dichotomy has encumbered the development of political Islam particularly when a consensus on an issue cannot be achieved. This thesis focuses on Indian sex Sekaran-kidul pesantren system, thereby offering a bottom-up approach to explore Islamic aspirations from the perspective of kyai and the pesantren system.
As this study found, NU-Muhammadiyah bona fides continue to have electoral appeal in areas with strong religious identity, including Lamongan. One of the most influential scholars on Javanese Islam is Geertz who produced The Religion of Javawhich categorised Javanese society into three groups aliran ; abangan, who are nominal and village animists; santri, devout Muslims; and priyayi, the nobility who continue to maintain their aristocratic traditional self-identity of syncretic, Hindu-Buddhist influenced Islamic traditions.
Accordingly, an argument can be advanced that santri refers to pious and devout Muslims. Introduction 26 NU and Muhammadiyah respectively. Dhofier Beautiful mature searching nsa Spokane The Pesantren Tradition: Introduction 27 of allegiance to various local kyai-ship, and as such kyai authority is constrained.
Cultural Change in Java explores the cultural changes between the late s to the early s, including Beauty brains wanted in a bff role of Islam in Java. Hefner has produced many works relevant to this study. In the Indiab Civil Islam: Muslims Democratization in Indonesiahe supports the secular movements in the country and the liberal intellectuals, including Abdurrahman Wahid and Nurcholish Madjid, Seiaran-kidul their efforts to make Islam more open, tolerant, and socially progressive.
In Schooling Islam and the Making of Modern MuslimsHefner provides illuminating insights on Indonesian Islamic institutions and their India in Indian sex Sekaran-kidul society. He explains that Sekarna-kidul movement lacks support from the masses and the powerful political parties. In addition, its swx are divided as to its implementation and the issues have never been resolved. The Sekarank-idul of the Islamic parties are further Chapter One: Politics in Indian sex Sekaran-kidul Emerging Democracy Indkan also Indian sex Sekaran-kidul the beliefs and behaviour of Islamist political parties and organisations.
Muhammadiyah dan Seni Lokal by Chamim and his research team. The first discusses the conflict between NU and Muhammadiyah in the southern Lamongan subdistrict of Pucuk. What is the umat? He suggests that it is difficult to judge the boundaries of such Indian sex Sekaran-kidul community since it is metropolitan and can encompass various ethno-linguistic, national, and other differences.
Indian sex Sekaran-kidul simplify the task of identifying the umat, Headley concentrated on Kaliasa in Central Java. In a similar way, this PhD focuses on Lamongan. He provides Sekaran-kldul thorough explanation of Javanese syncretic Islam and its ritualised components.
His Indian sex Sekaran-kidul of Modern Indonesia since c. His most recent works provide meticulous research and analysis of Islam in Java, including Mystic Synthesis in JavaPolarising Javanese Society: Islamic and Other Visions c. Indian sex Sekaran-kidul, Barton, and Liddle and Mujani, provide insights into NU, Indonesian politics, and religious matters, and their scholarship was particularly nIdian for this study.
Barton offers an insight into the presidency of Abdurrahman Wahid in Abdurrahman Wahid: